What Are The Different Types Of Coffee Beans? By Geographical Area
More than 80 countries grow coffee trees. It's possible to classify coffee beans according to various parameters: the quality and type of beans, fruit processing, or the degree of roasting.
Arabica grows on 75% of the plantations. Robusta occupies the rest of the fields. South America remains the leader in the export of coffee beans, the second and third places belong to Asia and Europe.
The following are 18 famous names from the list of 44 varieties based on different cultivars in different geographical regions. Read over and let us know: what are the best tasting coffee beans for you?
If you are looking for an answer to the question: what are the top 10 coffee beans? Arabica is definitely in the first place because of its popularity. Ethiopia is its homeland.
They develop in highlands with a height of 3000 - 7000 feet above sea level. The trees grow up to 17 feet and produce red or red-violet fruits.
The grains are light brown in shape resemble an oval up to 1/2" long. Arabica has a sweetish flavor.
Robusta comes from the Congo. You can easily distinguish this variety from Arabica.
The beans are round in shape with a dark red shell. Robusta is much bitter due to its high caffeine content (2.7%), to be exact, twice the amount of this content as Arabica beans.
This type of bean has a low level of acidity. It has a nice, smooth taste, and some even have a hint of chocolate in the flavor. Therefore, it is very suitable to combine with sugar, condensed milk, and cream.
Liberica beans have a larger and irregular shape. Its aroma is a combination of fruity and floral scents. Some people even claim to smell smoke and wood.
This type of coffee does not represent industrial value because the taste is not quite suitable for the masses. However, tasting it is also a way to refresh your palate.
#4. Bourbon Santos
It has the name of an island in the Caribbean. The beans are oily and sour. Meanwhile, the drink has a rich taste with a nutty chocolate smell and notes of orange.
Santos has a coffee-nutty aroma and flavor with hints of almond and cocoa. But with the wet method of processing, the shades are cleaner and more expressive.
Santos does not belong to refined drinks. Connoisseurs consider this variety to be rustic. But for making a morning brew in cezve or espresso in a coffee machine, Santos is very good as it's thick, rich, and strong.
Caturra is a compact plant with good yields and average quality, common in Central America. The potential of this variety will develop at an altitude of 5,200 feet above sea level.
The grain of Caturra is not very large, about the same as that of Pacas. The taste of the drink is decent but not exceptional.
The Excelsa beans have a nice almond shape. Light roasting is the best roast to preserve both its fruity and tart flavors.
Excelsa is suitable for making blends so that your brew can have more taste and oomph. When drinking this drink, practice enjoying it in the middle and back of the palate to get the best flavor.
#7. Blue Mountain
The Blue Mountains beans have a mild aroma and rich bouquet without the slightest hint of bitterness. Over the past few decades, Blue Mountain has built a reputation as one of the world's most expensive and rarest coffees.
Jamaican Blue Mountain is a certified and protected brand. It is one of the most expensive varieties in the world for several reasons.
Most plants grow on the ground, but Jamaica Blue Mountain develops at the very tops of the mountains, making both plantations work and harvesting very difficult. Growing this variety is fraught with danger, which also affects the price.
Finally, this variety undergoes several stringent quality checks, which require labor and resources and reduce the final volume of grain supplied to the market.
Catimor is a plant free from major coffee diseases, yielding a bountiful harvest and compact in size to fit on the plantation more trees.
This plant is significantly inferior to Bourbon Santos, Caturre, Catuai, and other "flagships", so its cultivation becomes unprofitable. Catimor beans lack the depth of taste and aroma.
The final decoction sometimes has a sour and unpleasant taste. However, if you process the beans correctly, you can reduce those qualities somewhat.
Maragogype is a rare Arabica variety characterized by very large grains up to 5/8" long. The length of selected Arabica grains of other varieties is only 1/4".
The beans are more porous than regular Arabica or Robusta, making it more difficult to roast properly. Maragogype contains many essential oils, which manifest themselves in different ways during heat treatment.
For the noble aroma of the beans to fully manifest, the Maragogype roast should be slightly lighter than medium. The rare Hawaiian Maragogype is famous among connoisseurs. It has a honey-orange flavor, followed by chocolate notes in the aftertaste.
Real Arabica Geisha grows in Panama and Malawi. It has tall trees with green and bronze leaves, medium grain size, same as Caturra.
You can get the highest quality and tastiest coffee from fruits grown at an altitude of more than 5,200 feet above sea level. The finished drink has exceptional taste characteristics.
With a light to medium roast, Geisha retains more caffeine than with a strong roast. But the drink turns out to be similar to tea. It even smells of bergamot.
#11. Mundo Novo
Arabica Mundo Novo is a hybrid of Typica and Bourbon, bred in Brazil in the 1940s. A fairly unpretentious and tenacious plant gives a good harvest and aromatic beans of good quality.
Mundo Novo trees are very tall, with green or bronze leaves and medium-sized fruits. Mundo Novo has a good but not exceptional taste and aroma.
Catuai Arabica is a compact plant with green leaves and medium-sized fruits. The palatability of Catuai is not impressive.
Catuai beans produce sweetish coffee. There are two global subspecies of the variety - red and yellow. Some connoisseurs authoritatively state that the grains of red cherries are tastier.
Pacamara trees are squat with green or bronze leaves. The bean is very large, comparable in size to the Maragogype variety.
The taste of the best variety examples gained five points out of five in international competitions. But the yield of Pacamara Arabica remains below average.
Due to the irregular grain size, you need to roast them more slowly and at lower temperatures than other varieties. Otherwise, the core may not dry out, while the outer layer will already begin to burn. For the same reason, the grains require more space.
The coffee itself offers a perfect balance of floral and citrus flavors, along with a little acidity and a touch of sweetness.
#14. Kona Typica
The Kona Arabica grows in the Kona region of the same name in Hawaii. The combination of a unique climate and mineral-rich volcanic soil provide the grains with an excellent taste.
It has made Kona one of the most expensive varieties in the world. Kona coffee has a rich aroma, full-body, a balanced and rich bouquet with notes of tropical fruits, and a sweet-spicy aftertaste.
Sidamo grains are not aesthetically pleasing in appearance. They are usually of an uneven shape, flattened.
But this feature does not affect the rich taste of this coffee. The washed processing of grain causes a rich sourness and sweetness in the taste.
The drink has a velvety body and a balanced taste. The chocolate and wine notes dominate the aroma. Coffee made from Sidamo beans has bright citrus acidity, light bitterness, and a long, rich aftertaste of lime and spices.
Pacas Arabica is a natural mutation of Bourbon, found in El Salvador in 1949. Pacas is one of the most common varieties of Arabica, not striking either by the exclusivity of the bouquet or by other special characteristics.
Any roast is suitable for him since no subtle nuances in the bouquet reveal only a certain processing method. The taste of the drink strongly depends on the location of the plantation, the weather, and the harvest year.
What Are The Main Types Of Coffee Beans? Type Of Processing Method
The exquisite aroma and nutrition of coffee not only depend on the type of beans and the degree of roasting. The way people process the coffee is also of great importance for the quality of the final product.
So, how many different types of coffee beans in terms of processing? This article covers the four most common methods.
#1. Natural Processed Coffee
Natural processing is the easiest and most economical way to prepare coffee. The farmers dry the beans on banana leaves.
Coffee fruits contain a lot of water, so the drying time of the product ranges from 2 weeks to a month. During this period, they are constantly mixed with drying evenly and preventing mold.
During natural processing, the acidity of the coffee decreases due to fermentation, and it becomes stronger. Drying ends when the moisture content in the grain is 11-12%.
After that, the farmers remove the dried pulp and peel the grains from the parchment shell and package the final products.
#2. Washing Process
In countries with high humidity, it isn't easy to implement the above method. They had another idea for making beans: washing.
With this method, the farmers remove the skin from the harvested berries using special equipment. This process is depulpation.
After depulpation, soak the grains in water for 12-24 hours. Here, the fermentation process will remove the remaining pulp and gluten. Finally, wash the grains in clean water.
At the next stage, dry them as in the dry method. However, the drying process is now faster, from 10 to 22 days. Now, the beans are ready for packaging.
#3. Honey Processed Coffees
Honey or half-washed treatment combines the elements of the two previous methods.
At the first stage, the harvested crop is subjected to depulpation, as in washed cleaning. Then the farmers naturally dry the berries in the open air.
This treatment method does not use water. Fermentation takes place during the drying process.
As a result of processing by this method, the grains acquire the color of honey. The more pulp and gluten remains on the grains when dried, the more saturated color the final product acquires.
#4. Wet-Hulled Coffees
Wet grinding is popular in Indonesia. First, the farmers clean the grains from the skin and pulp, then ferment them in water. At the next stage, they dry the beans until the moisture content of the grain drops to 30%.
After that, they remove the parchment shell from the grains and dry them again. The output is green or bluish beans, which are ready for packaging.
See how to carry out this method in this video:
Youtube source: Cafe Imports
What are the different types of coffee beans? The 20 examples above always appear first. Each processing method gives different products in terms of flavor and color.
Taste all 20 drinks made from these berries and leave us a comment letting us know which one is the apple of your eye. Thank you for reading!